Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale write the first
draft of the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense
(BPP) 10 - Point Program.
Sixteen-year-old Bobby Hutton becomes the first
male recruit of the BPP.
First BPP office opens at 5624 Grove Street,
Panthers patrol the street of Oakland.
The Panthers escort Betty Shabazz from the San
Francisco airport to Ramparts for an interview with Eldridge
In Richmond, CA, Denzil Dowell is shot and killed
by sheriff's deputies at Third and Chestly, an
unincorporated area of North Richmond. Panthers respond to
a request from the Dowell family for protection from police
The first issue of the Black Panther Party Black
Community News Service is published. This four-page
mimeograph newspaper headlines "Why Was Denzil Dowell
Thirty armed Panthers and their supporters go to the
California State Capitol at Sacramento to protest the
Mulford Act, a bill aimed at banning the display of loaded
Riots explode in major cities, including Newark,
Cleveland and Detroit.
At 4:56am, Oakland officer John Frey is killed
and officer Herbert Haines wounded in a predawn altercation
after stopping Huey Newton and Gene McKinney. Newton is
also critically wounded.
The Black Panther increases its circulation
Alprentice “Bunchy” Carter, deputy minister of
defense for Southern California, organizes The Southern
California branch of the BPP. The BPP office is at Central
Ave. and 43rd Street.
At 3:30am, San Francisco police officers break
down the apartment door of Eldridge and Kathleen Cleaver.
The officers ransack the apartment without a search warrant.
Emory Douglas is also present.
In Orangeburg, South Carolina, on the campus of
South Carolina State College, local police backed by the
National Guard fire on a crowd of unarmed students; 33 black
activists are shot, and three die.
A "Free Huey" rally is held at the Oakland
Auditorium on Newton's birthday. More than 5,000 supporters
attend including Stokely Carmichael, H. Rap Brown, James
Forman, Ron Dellums, and Peace and Freedom Party
At 2:00am, Berkeley police officers break down
the door and ransack the home of Bobby and Artie Seale. The
Seales are charged with conspiracy to commit murder.
Charges are later dropped for lack of evidence.
Arthur (Glen) Morris, brother of Bunchy Carter, is
shot and killed by "agents" of the U.S. government. He is
the first member of the BPP to be killed.
Anthony Coltrale is killed in Watts by a local police officer.
The Kansas City BPP office is raided by police and five Panthers are arrested.
An FBI memo from J. Edgar Hoover outlines goals to
his staff to "Prevent the coalition of militant black
The New York BPP chapter is organized.
The Oakland police department raids Father Neil's
church, where Party members are holding a meeting.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., is assassinated at
the Lorraine Motel, Memphis, TN. Riots occur in major
cities across the country, but Oakland remains calm due to
the efforts of the BPP.
An Oakland police shoot-out results in the murder
of Bobby Hutton; Eldridge Cleaver is wounded. Seven other
Panthers are arrested.
Three Panthers are arrested in Seattle, Washington.
Panther volunteers register is assassinated at the
Lorraine Motel, Memphis, TN. Riots occur in major cities
across the country, but Oakland remains calm due to the
efforts of the BPP.
An Oakland police shoot-out results in the murder
of Bobby Hutton; Eldridge Cleaver is wounded. Seven other
Panthers are arrested.
Three Panthers are arrested in Seattle,
Panther volunteers register Oakland citizens to
Funeral services for Bobby Hutton held at
Ephesians Church of God in Christ on Alcatraz Avenue in
Berkeley. More than 2,500 attend the funeral.
San Francisco Party captain Dexter Woods arrested for
curfew violation and given 5 days in jail.
Eldridge Cleaver takes Panther case to the United Nations.
The West Oakland Panther office opened by Tommy
Jones, Glen Stafford, and other dedicated Panther
The Seattle BPP office is raided by local police.
Captain Aaron Dixon of the Seattle BPP and Panther Curtis
Harris are arrested for grand larceny. Both are eventually
found not guilty.
Captain Dexter Woods of the San Francisco BPP arrested for
interference with police.
More than 6,000 protestors come out in support
of Huey Newton on the steps of the Alameda County Courthouse
in Oakland. The national and international press is present
as well as the National Guard.
The newly formed Brown Berets make their appearance on the
courthouse steps in support of Huey.
The West Oakland Party office is raided and
ransacked by police.
In Newark, the Panther office is firebombed.
In Detroit, Panthers and police have a shoot-out; however,
there are no injuries.
Five Seattle Panthers are harassed in their car by local police.
A Los Angeles shoot-out between police and
Panthers leaves two Panthers killed.
Chairman Bobby Seale and Captain David Hilliard
speak to a crowd of 5,000 across the street from the
Democratic National Convention.
Communications Secretary Kathleen Cleaver, in
Hawaii at the Peace and Freedom Party convention, is refused
the right to enter Japan.
Three Panthers -- Robert Lawrence, Steve
Bartholomew, and Tommy Lewis
are murdered by Los Angeles
police at a service station.
The San Francisco Examiner prints an article
exposing Panther George Murray's employment as a teacher at
San Francisco State. Chancellor Dumke orders Murray's
termination. The Black Student Union immediately goes on
strike in support of Murray.
Newton's jury deliberates for four days and in
the end come up with a compromise verdict, convicting Huey
of voluntary manslaughter. He is acquitted of the assault
charge and the kidnap charges are dropped.
J. Edgar Hoover declares the BPP the "greatest threat to the
internal security of the country".
Huey P. Newton is sentenced to 2 to 15 years
in state prison and removed from Oakland in five minutes.
Judge Friedman refuses al meetings for granting a mistrial.
Four hours after Huey's conviction, two (admittedly drunk)
on-duty Oakland police officers commit a drive-by shooting
of the BPP office on Grove Street.
Eldridge Cleaver's parole is revoked and he is sent back to
Denver police shoot up Panther office during
racial disturbance. Panther Lauren Watson is charged with
conspiracy to commit arson.
New York police department harasses Panthers over use of a
bullhorn at Panther headquarters.
San Francisco State college begins major
Seattle Panther Sidney Miller is murdered.
Panther Reginald Forte's car is stopped by
Berkeley police. After an altercation, Forte and Officer
Wolke are wounded.
FBI memo details plans to cause dissension
between Los Angeles Panthers and United Slaves (US) under
the leadership of Ron Karenga.
Forty-three Denver police raid Panther office,
cause $9,000 in damage, and steal $150 in cash.
Newark Panther office is bombed by local
Twelve Chicago Panthers are arrested on
Indianapolis Panther office is raided by FBI
and local police, who fire three cans of tear gas and
ransack the place; $600 in cash is taken from the Party's
Denver police raid Panther office looking for
weapons, but none is found. Out of frustration officers
burn food and clothing that were to be given to community
poor for the holidays.
A demonstration is held by the Indiana
Committee to Defend the BPP in front of the local police
station. Clergy members, Citizen's Defense League, Purdue
Peace League, and other community organizations are in
Des Moines Panther office is raided by 100
police officers and FBI agents. Mrs. Joanne Cheatom,
president of the Des Moines Welfare Rights Organization, is
arrested along with several Panthers.
San Francisco Panther office is raided by
Sacramento Panthers exchange gunfire in a shoot-out with
police; 13 officers are wounded and 37 persons are jailed.
Los Angeles Panther Frank Diggs is shot in the
head and killed by police agents.
The Panthers' Free Breakfast for Children Program
(FBCP) is under way at St. Augustine's Church in Oakland.
Los Angeles captain Bunchy Carter and Deputy
Minister John Huggins are murdered in Campbell Hall on the
UCLA campus, by US members.
Chicago police and FBI conspire to prevent
Panther Fred Hampton from appearing on a local television
J. Edgar Hoover approves mailing of anonymous
letter to provoke Blackstone Rangers to attack BPP members
In Des Moines, more than 100 police officers storm the BPP office.
In Berkeley, 37 student strikers are arrested
in the UC Berkeley Third Third_World Strike.
In Los Angeles following a student strike meeting
at Victory Baptist Church, an altercation ensues in the
parking lot between US members and Panthers. Panther Ronald
Freeman is wounded in the chest and groin. Local police
watch the fight from their vehicle parked across the street
and do not intervene.
Vallejo, CA, BPP starts FBCP with 35 children.
Within a week the number of children grows to 110.
Panthers Bobby Seale and Masai Hewitt tour
Scandinavian countries: Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland.
In Los Angeles, inflammatory letters instigated
by the FBI are sent to Panthers from US members.
In Des Moines, Iowa, a house used as the BPP
office is completely demolished by CDT plastic explosives.
Later, in testimony before the House Committee on Un-
American Activities, Panthers and the local police
department accuse each other of the bombing.
In San Francisco, police officers tear gas, fire
upon using automatic weapons, and raid Party office. A
total of 16 Panthers are arrested.
In Chicago, the FBCP began with 83 children, and
by the end of the week more than 1,100 children are fed.
In New York, 21 Panthers are arrested on a wide variety of
In New York, high school students hold a
demonstration at Long Island City High School to demand
freedom for the Panther 21 arrested on conspiracy charges.
In Des Moines, Iowa, the Panthers' FBCP is
attacked by police.
In Des Moines, Iowa, the BPP office is totally
destroyed by a firebomb.
"Free Huey" rallies are held in 20 major cities at
U.S. federal district courts.
New Jersey Panthers David Williams and Marion
Fields are harassed by officers for passing out leaflets.
In Greensboro, North Carolina, the National Guard,
with tanks and helicopters, shoots up the campus with tear
gas during student unrest.
In New Haven, Connecticut, Panther Alex Rackley is
viciously tortured and murdered by undercover agent George
Sams who eventually pled guilty to second-degree murder and
whose status as an agent was confirmed at his trial. Before
his arrest many Panther offices were raided under the
pretext of looking for him.
New Haven, Connecticut, Panther office is raided by
police, and Panthers are arrested on conspiracy to commit
San Diego Panther John Savage is murdered by US
In Berkeley, the FBI curtails distribution of Party
newspapers by ripping them up and disrupting U.S. mail
service. United Airlines and TWA accept contracts to
receive and deliver the newspaper, but now deny receiving
In Detroit, local police storm the BPP office in
search of suspects in the New Haven murder of Alex Rackley;
$25,000 damage is done to the office and bail is set at
$4,000 each. Charges on all Panthers arrested are dropped.
The Liberation School, a BPP survival program, starts.
Indianapolis, Indiana, Panther Fred Crawford is
arrested for assault and battery.
Los Angeles, Panther Daniel Lynem is charged with murder.
Charges are eventually dropped.
In Denver, Colorado, Rory Hithe and Landon Williams are
arrested with no bail and charged with conspiracy in
connection with the New York 21 and Connecticut 8 as well as
unlawful flight to avoid prosecution.
the Chicago BPP office is raided in search of
George Sams. Eight Panthers are arrested and charged with
harboring a fugitive. Bail is set at $1,000, but all
charges are dropped.
Seventeen Panthers in Indianapolis, Indiana, are arrested
and charged with disorderly conduct.
Los Angeles Panther Wayne Pharr is charged with
murder. Charges are later dropped.
In Chicago, 16 Panthers, including William O'Neal
(an undercover agent), are indicted for conspiracy,
kidnapping, and aggravated battery. Bail is set at $100,000
Panthers Joel Brown and Ron Davis are attacked,
maced, and arrested by police for allegedly blocking a
public walkway while selling BPP newspapers.
the San Diego and Sacramento BPP offices are
In Chicago, Panther David Smith is arrested for
selling the BPP newspaper.
In Los Angeles, Geronimo Pratt and Roger Lewis are
arrested on suspicion of murder. The charges are later
In Jersey City, 4 Panthers are arrested for
carrying concealed weapons. Bail is set at $350 each.
Eleven New York Panthers are arrested and charged
with obstructed vision because there were too many people in
one car. Seven are released on $1,000 bail, the remaining 4
are held for selling BPP newspapers.
In Los Angeles, Ron Freeman is arrested on
suspicion of murder and possession of drugs. Charges are
Jersey City local police departments report on the BPP
before a Senate Subcommittee in Washington DC.
In Jersey City, Panther Floyd Tyler is arrested and
charged with murder, but soon released.
In San Francisco, Panther Liberation School opens.
In Chicago, Bobby Rush is stopped in a car and
arrested for driving without a license plate and sticker
despite the fact that the receipt is taped to the car
San Diego police provoke a 2-day riot, leaving 2
dead, several wounded, and 100 arrested. Two officers are
killed as well.
New Haven, Connecticut, Panthers initiate lead
poisoning testing. This state has the worst lead poisoning
in the country.
In Oakland, the United Front Against Fascism
conference runs 3 days. The goal is to plan and discuss
community control of police.
In Queens, New York, Liberation School opens with
In San Francisco, another Liberation School is
started at Hunters Point.
In San Diego, the John Savage Memorial FBCP moves
ahead despite vandals who broke into the church and
In Algeria, Eldridge Cleaver is cheered as he addresses the
people in front of the new Afro-American Information Center.
Cleaver is joined by Emory Douglas, David Hilliard, Masai
Hewitt, Baby Dee, and the daughter of Richard Wright to
attend a 12-day Pan-African Cultural Festival.
In Chicago, the BPP office is raided in an
unprovoked attack that lasts 45 minutes. Police destroy
food and take $500 in cash. Panther Pete Hayman is charged
with attempted murder and is severely beaten and
In Milwaukee, Panther Richard Smith is arrested
for jaywalking and selling BPP newspapers.
New York Panthers Robert Moore and Eula May Fischer are both
arrested for selling BPP newspapers without a permit.
In Richmond, CA, police raid the BPP office.
In Kansas City, the BPP opens the Bobby Hutton Free Health
In Denver, the BPP starts a FBCP.
San Diego Panther Sylvester Bell is shot and
killed by US members. The FBCP is closed due to shootings.
In Ann Arbor, Michigan, White Panther Party
Minister of Information John Sinclair is convicted for
selling 2 joints to an undercover agent.
Bobby Seale is kidnapped by Berkeley police
after leaving the wedding of Masai Hewitt and Shirley Neely.
He is immediately taken to San Francisco and charged with
initiating the riots at the 1968 Democratic National
Convention in Chicago and New Haven murder of Alex Rackley.
Harlem Panthers initiate a FBCP and Free
Clothing Program at All Saints Catholic Church.
The Black Panther brings attention to South
African political prisoner Nelson Mandela.
San Diego police fire bullets and gas rockets
into Panther home for 45 minutes. People in the community
throw bottles and rocks at police. Officers in turn kick
down citizens' doors and beat the people.
In Chicago, a federal judge orders Bobby Seale
gagged and shackled to a metal folding chair and eventually
removes him from the courtroom.
The BPP in Chicago opens a free medical health clinic.
The Berkeley Tribe newspaper reveals a
transcript of a 35-step assault plan by Berkeley police to
engage in a full-scale attack on the BPP National
In Los Angeles, Panther Nathaniel Clark is
In Philadelphia, the BPP office is raided.
The FBI takes file records and petitions for community
control of the police.
In New York, the Young Lords are organized by Cha Cha Jiminez.
In Philadelphia, Barbara Cox initiates Panther Free Clothing Program.
Panther Walter "Toure" Pope is murdered by Los
Angeles metro squad in broad daylight as he drops BPP
newspapers off at store.
In Seattle, the BPP opens a free medical clinic.
In New Haven, Connecticut, 5,000 demonstrators
march and converge at state courthouse in support of BPP
members charged with murder of Alex Rackley.
In Chicago, 13 Panthers are held in
"preventive detention" on $100,000 bail for trumped-up
conspiracy charges to blow up various locations.
In Chicago, Fred Hampton, and Mark Clark are
viciously murdered by police while they sleep.
Los Angeles police department launches a full-
scale attack on Southern California Panthers in a predawn
raid. At two separate locations, 400 officers arrest Party
members and children. During one shoot-out, Roland
Freeman's body is riddled with bullets, but he survives.
Los Angeles Local Union 535, Social Services
Workers' Union, passes a resolution to protest the political
murders of Panthers across the country and to demand the
release of all political prisoners.
The entire shipment of BPP newspapers shipped
to New Haven, Connecticut, never arrives.
In Los Angeles, the Bunchy Carter Free Health
Winston-Salem, North Carolina, shipment of BPP
newspapers arrives a week late.